What would you do with $x?

Dan Meyer posted earlier this week about how, given $1000 for a classroom, he would spend it on whiteboards for the walls, a doc cam, and some miscellaneous hardware. I tweeted the article, and got the following response;

Challenge Accepted.

Some assumptions; A class of 30 is easy to do math with (adding up costs type math, not classroom type math). I assume solid wifi since I don’t have $1mil laying around for an upgrade. The classroom comes stocked with an overhead projector, a standard issue computer, and one 4′ x 16′ front whiteboard. I’m going to assume (based loosely on my memory) that a classroom is 30′ x 30′. Lets say one wall is windows from 4′ to 8′, because it depresses me to think of a classroom without windows. Generally speaking I took the first price I found on any particular item, and I reserve the right to round anything to the closest order of magnitude, for reasons of estimation (or laziness). Also, I currently teach only physics, but have taught math, particularly Geometry, for a number of years. I’m writing this post about a math classroom because it’s more universal and more in line with what Dan and Jeremy are positing. A physics classroom adds significant cost, as full computers are desired because of software and hardware demands for digital data collection, as well as the data collection hardware purchases themselves. That said, most of the stuff I list below I would like in my physics classroom, I just would have to do more cost/benefit analysis to compare data collection devices (likely from Vernier) with the more general items below.

Spoiler alert; most of my purchases stem from a desire to encourage students doing rather than getting. Watch for that.

Unlimited Funds: My first purchase is going to be on the assumption that some donor will fund whatever I ask for, and that money unspent is money lost. That is, I don’t affect anyone else’s classroom or materials by skimping, so I don’t have to be all that ethical. First of all, I agree with all the folks in Dan’s post and get a bunch of whiteboards;

  • 36 Medium sized (24×32 in) student whiteboards ($100)
  • 36 Small (16 x 16 in) student whiteboards ($30)
  • Cover all the non-windowed walls in whiteboards ($5000, turns out quality classroom whiteboards aren’t cheap)
  • 2 rollable whiteboard dividers ($1000)

Frank Noschese wrote a great post about student whiteboards. Seriously, go read it, I certainly can’t improve on it as far as reasons to have students use whiteboards. Since I have unlimited funds in this scenario, I could purchase nice manufactured whiteboards at $120 a pop. But that’s so ridiculous that I can’t stand it. I can go to Home Depot and purchase a $15 sheet of 4′ x 8′ that makes 6 medium whiteboards or 16 small whiteboards. Why anyone would pay $12o for one of these aristocratic whiteboards is beyond me, let alone a class set for $3600. Next, covering the walls and adding dividers is to reduce barriers for students to talk about what they are doing. All they have to do is pick up a marker (I should probably have a $1000 marker budget….) and start collaborating. Clearly that takes some pedagogical skill (that I don’t know that I have yet), but we’ll save that for another post. I feel like 2 rollable dividers would be nice to be able to use in the middle of the room as well, but I think more of them would make it too cluttered. Honestly, what I really would want (but is even beyond reasonable for this unlimited funds exercise) is some system where students can easily drop whiteboards (or glass, that’d be cool too) from the ceiling, then raise it up again as a space saver. Plus then we’d have math on the ceiling, and that’d be pretty neat.

Noticeably missing: A SMART board. I don’t have one now, and don’t really want one. I want stuff that helps students collaborate and dialogue; a SMART board would be for ME. Seriously, even with unlimited funds, I wouldn’t get it simply because I want to do everything I can to encourage students to do the work. Whiteboard total: $6130.

Next let’s look at the classroom setting itself.

  • 15 Tables on Casters ($7500)
  • 30 Chairs on Casters (If you want to get crazy this could be up to $7500, but a simple internet search indicates I can do more like $3000)

Desks make it harder for kids to collaborate. I would love tables on casters for a number of reasons. I like that kids can easily group up on them. I like that we can move them into a whole class rectangle, put a couple together for larger group work, or get them all out of the way to do something more kinesthetic. Chairs on wheels would be nice too, but again I have trouble justifying the crazy expensive version. Class setting total: $10500.

Now we hit the technology setting. I’m going to start with room-scale technology.

  • 70″+ TV on casters ($2000)
  • Five 36″ TVs mounted on the walls. above the precious whiteboards, of course ($2500)
  • Apple TV for each TV to wirelessly project Apple products ($500)
  • I’m going to assume we can install some magic circuitry such that each TV can be accessed individually or they can all show the same thing, but I don’t feel strongly enough to actually research this. (umm…$1000?)
  • A teacher Macbook Air ($1000)
  • A teacher iPad mini ($300)
  • iPad doc cam setup ($130)

Actually, before I explain those, I want to add in the student technology;

  • 17 Chromebooks ($5100)
  • 2 iPad Minis ($600)
  • Chromecast for each TV to wirelessly project the Chromebooks ($200)

I saw the TV on casters once at a presentation on room design, and I fell in love with it for physics purposes. I would love to be able to roll it to the ‘front’ of the room as standard use, but then move it to the lab space to demo lab procedures, and have the flexibility to move the ‘front’ to wherever feels right. I have a harder time envisioning its use for math, but hey, dreaming big here. The TVs on the sides are more for students. I think it would be really neat while students work if “Hey Jasmine, that’s a neat graph, can you bring it up on screen 3 to show everyone?” became a reality. I like multiple TVs so students can regularly show each other, in small groups, what they are working on, hence the Apple TV and circuitry. Note that Apple TV, Airserver, and I’m pretty sure Chromecast, all use Bonjour, which can mess with network stuff that is beyond my expertise. So definitely check with someone on the IT side of things before investing there. The Macbook is so I can be anywhere in the room and still bring up something on a screen (as opposed to a desktop computer). I really like the iPad mini for classroom use because it fits in my hand easily, so I can take lots of pictures and use it as a doc cam as I walk around. The doc cam setup allows me to use it like a ‘real’ doc cam as well. I hear doc cams can do some pretty neat things, and we may be missing out on that with the iPad, but I feel like the flexibility of the iPad makes up for that. Both the iPad and the Macbook will have to be replaced 2-3 times over 10 years, so let’s add $3000 for replacement costs. Room-scale tech; $7500, $10,500 including replacement costs.

For student tech, I would go with Chromebooks because of their ease of use in a cart setting. That is, students don’t have their own, but logging into and out of a Chromebook is really easy to do. I only want 17 because I want a 2:1 ratio plus a couple extra, since batteries die and hardware stops working randomly (just when you want it the most). I want a 2:1 ratio for two reasons; first, I have heard from a number of people in 1:1 situations (we’re not there yet, though I have 10 laptops in my room) that even though each kid has a device, they often have half  go screen downs anyway. This is to encourage collaboration and to discourage multi-tasking. Kids are much less likely to check Facebook if their partner is watching over their shoulder. My second reason for 2:1 is that managing a cart is really annoying, and I think it becomes much more manageable with half the devices. I would deal with that if I had a solid pedagogical reason for 1:1, but I personally want more collaboration rather than individualization in my classroom anyway. Both Chromebooks and iPads run Desmos and Geogebra well, which accounts for probably 75% of my tech use in a math class. I like iPads a bit better for the ability to use the camera and draw on the surface, but the annoyance of lack of profiles for sharing the device easily negates that. We’ll figure out a workflow to use student devices to capture pictures and video and get it to the Chromebooks as needed. I include a couple iPads since it will inevitably be nice for some kids to just use them instead of personal devices (which they may not actually have).

We can only assume Chromebooks and iPads last about 3 years, so we should add in about $15,000 in replacement costs over 10 years. This leaves us with a student technology cost of $6000, pushing $20,000 with replacement costs.

So far in our unlimited funds scenario we are spending about $30,000 plus asking for $20,000 in replacement costs to sustain it for a bit. I don’t think money for replacement costs is common though.

Self-limit. Now I’m going to take a few things out because I have a conscience and I can’t picture an acceptable cost/benefit ratio for a couple of the items. The TVs on the walls have to go first, then the rollable large TV, and probably even the rollable whiteboard dividers. I would keep one Chromecast and Apple TV to retain the ability for both student and teacher devices to wirelessly connect to the overhead projector that we assumed started in the room (though it needs an HDMI input, and if it’s older, that would be a problem). No more need for $1000 magic circuitry though. This trims about $6000, and if we assume no replacement costs, we’re down to $24,000 now.

$20,000 limit. I would start by skimping on chairs, so getting rid of chairs with casters saves about $2000 from the self-limit amount. Then I would cut the other $2000 in wall whiteboards. It still leaves a lot of whiteboard space (I figure I can still put standard 4′ tall whiteboard around most of the room with the leftover $3000 whiteboard budget), it just wouldn’t be floor to ceiling.

The $10,000 question. This is the number I think starts to get into the realm of ‘I could potentially convince someone to actually fund this.’ It’s also where my decisions get more difficult. In particular, I really want to keep the tables on casters. I really like (at least in theory) their flexibility. So I cheated a bit, did some more research, and founds some cheaper tables. Thus what I would keep, when nailed down;

  • 36 Medium sized (24×32 in) student whiteboards ($100)
  • 36 Small (16 x 16 in) student whiteboards ($30)
  • Only add two 15′ x 4′ wall whiteboards ($1500)
  • Cheaper tables on casters, chairs with no casters ($4000)
  • 15 student Chromebooks and one Chromecast ($4500)

This puts me over budget by $130. Pin me down and I’d cheat by finding even cheaper tables and/or chairs. I’m not getting rid of the whiteboards.

In the end I basically agree with Dan and other twitter folks, but with extra cash I would add tables and Chromebooks. I think I’d add the Chromebooks first, as I really like what you can do even with just Desmos and Geogebra. But tables are really close. I honestly didn’t expect, when I started this process, that in the end I’d keep the tables. I think I need to get moving on asking for some for my actual classroom.

Note that what’s left is a bunch of things for students to use. I didn’t even try to do that (really). Here’s hoping my practices reflect my apparent beliefs.

On a personal note, this was a really interesting exercise for me to examine why I hold particular items dear in my classroom. I hope it’s insightful for you as well, and I would love for you to share your thoughts, additions, subtractions, or anything else in the comments.

Here’s the spreadsheet I used to collect items and costs, in case you want to look at it more closely.

UPDATE: Megan Hayes-Golding suggested something I really just had to add back in; a multi layered whiteboard. This definitely goes in the unlimited category. I would definitely consider finding room for it in the $20,000 limit.

I Am Not Satisfied

I refuse to believe that kids should simply tolerate math**. I refuse the idea that math as a pursuit is so trivial and uninteresting that we have to spice it up by adding systemic, extrinsic motivational gadgetry to help kids stomach it (see my favorite post on gamification by Bill Ferriter). Math is the study of patterns, a beautiful, perplexing, engaging task on it’s own, that we manage to stifle on a systemic level by reducing it to trivial tasks of memorization, regurgitation, and pseudocontext.

Please don’t misunderstand me; I’m not against games, nor occasional extrinsic motivation. I will not, however, accept that we’re ready to throw up our hands and concede that the subjects that hold our passion are not worth the attempt to instill that same excitement in our students. So I am against the systemic marginalization of our passions for pursuits like gamification or edtech for edtech’s sake.

I refuse to believe that we need edtech, generally, to engage students. I have seen plenty of engaging lessons with the absence of technology. I’ve seen Ellis Island simulations where students take part in sorting, waiting, and deportation, a powerful experience to help students wrap their minds around something typically far outside their realm of possibility. I’ve seen students compare and contrast cultures by visiting different ethnic marketplaces and reflecting on the practices of the shopkeepers as they try to bring good fortune on their stores. I’ve seen students debate passionately about important topics that they can work to address. I’ve seen students literally cheer in physics class. They didn’t need to augment their reality in the app store.

That said, there are a lot of great ways to enhance education with technology as well. Take, for example, the video my student made two years ago about how an Ocarina works. She could have written a paper about it, but the video reaches a larger audience as well as communicates her learning more effectively. And that’s exactly my point; the learning in the video is what makes it the most awesome; the video simply serves to enhance that.

There’s the rub; use edtech, but use it wisely. If you can’t communicate the purpose in learning behind your use of edtech, then I question it’s use.

I have had my share of poor edtech decisions. I once did a research project on forces using collaborative Google Docs, where kids learned about how to use docs but nothing about forces. I’m not perfect. But I did learn from that experience, and after realizing that the project didn’t help students gain any real understanding, I ditched it.

On the note of lesson design, I am not satisfied with simplifying the complexities of teaching to where it falls on the SAMR scale. Teaching is nuanced, fluid, and has a ton of moving parts, and we’d be better off embracing that than cheapening it with a stamp of ‘modification.’

I am not satisfied with degrading the student experience of learning by sugar coating it with edtech. I believe students are adventuresome, energetic, and truly want to learn. We just need to harness that energy on a systemic scale. We can certainly harness the power of technology to do so, but it should carry the banner of learning in doing so.

This post was written because I tend to be a dissenting voice in many discussions, and recently I’ve gotten a bit of pushback about that (one example of a few). But I refuse to be satisfied with band aid solutions when a transplant is needed for the real chance of survival (or better yet, the real chance to thrive). I’m very pleased that my district is looking big picture at how we teach and how students learn first, then looking at how technology can support that. I do think, however, that the edtech community needs to acknowledge that the focus must shift in a real way towards learning as the first priority. We may say learning first, but if we then push the use of the next big app, that message is lost in translation.

I am not satisfied with how my class went this year, nor will I be for next year. But I will continually seek improvement, and will do so in the name of student learning. That’s all I ask of anyone.

**insert class of your choosing here.

Pedagogy : Edtech :: Chicken : Egg?

Today I was in an inter-district meeting via G+. We started with introductions where we were charged with sharing something innovative going on in our district. At my turn I shared that I was happy about the academic redesign process that my district has gone through over the past 6 months, particularly because I like that we are considering pedagogical shifts before implementing devices with kids. My basic claim is that I would rather see teachers ready to handle student-centered, discovery-type classrooms, which leads to a specific purpose for implementing technology to help make that happen. I was surprised when some of the members of the meeting pushed back a bit on that notion. The basic argument (which I sincerely hope I’m not mis-representing, this was a very amicable conversation) seemed to be that teachers need to know the technology to be able to teach differently using it. My frustration with a ‘devices first’ approach stems from, for example,  hearing stories of districts spending millions of dollars to ‘transform’ doing math from paper worksheets to PDF worksheets in Notability. It seems to me that we should train teachers in the (very difficult to master) craft of teaching through inquiry and student dialogue, at which point they would be ready to implement fantastic tools like Desmos or Geogebra to facilitate that learning. I’m wondering what you think, internet. Am I off my rocker? Am I missing something? Or does pedagogy first resonate with you as well? I appreciate your thoughts.

Modeling the Mistake Game

I’ve been convinced for some time about the value of playing the mistake game, but I have been unable to get my students to successfully buy into it. Today we started graph stacks, where one of the three kinematic graphs (position vs. time, velocity vs. time, and acceleration vs. time) are given to students and they need to qualitatively sketch the other two. I wanted to use it as an opportunity to once again try the game.

First period I allowed students to work for a while on attempted the graphs, and then I assigned two groups the same problem. I asked one of the two groups to purposefully make a mistake and didn’t say anything to the other group.

2014-09-26 08.45.29While I liked the comparison, we ended up with 6 people in front of the room while all the conversation was focused on the three with the mistake. They rode it out and did a great job, but I still didn’t feel like kids knew what questions they should ask to back the group into a logical corner. So I decided to change it up 2nd period.

I again let students work for a while, and then I picked a problem and put it on the board with some mistakes embedded. The position vs. time graph is the original that was given, and the black on the v vs. t and a vs. t graphs is what I originally drew . The orange is the corrections we eventually made through questioning.

2014-09-26 10.34.19

I told students that I was going to model a presentation where we play the mistake game. I then gave the presentation; “The position is decreasing and positive so the velocity was positive but decreasing as well.” Then I gave them a minute to talk to their partners about good questions to ask.

And they didn’t ask good questions.

But what happened was that I was able to stop the minute someone asked a great question. “What is the slope of the position graph at time zero?” We then had a conversation about how forcing someone into a logical corner doesn’t happen with one question; it happens with a series of questions. So once I know that the slope of the position graph is zero at time zero, that leads to the logical connection that the velocity has to be zero at time zero.

Still, I didn’t feel like it went that well. So I let them work for a while again, then I picked the next problem and modeled it again.

They forced me into a corner in less than 2 minutes.

They learned through the first modeling session that a good question is one about the specific of the graph, not about what the person was thinking. Starting a question with “Why did you….” often doesn’t help. Starting instead with “What is the slope…” or “Are the velocities positive, negative, or zero…” does.

3rd period I repeated the process of modeling the mistake game with exactly the same results; it was painful the first time, and quick the second. I think I’ve got a keeper. Tons of students asked questions; they really seemed to be into it. Monday we’ll be trying the game with students presenting and I’ll update this post with the results.

UPDATE: Anecdotally, I felt like the day students presented their graph stacks with purposeful mistakes was one of the best whiteboarding experiences I’ve had so far. For each and every problem students were explicitly evaluating and analyzing every aspect of each graph, as opposed to correct graphs where they seem to say ‘yep, looks right.’ The quiz results were impressive. Out of a 4 point scale, last year the average was 2.36 whereas this year’s was 3.21 (p<0.0001). I’m in for the mistake game as a regular part of class from now on!

Reluctant Participants and Board Meetings

As I start my 3rd year of Modeling Instruction, I’m happy to be in a place where I can start tweaking rather than making sweeping changes to my courses. My primary goal this year is to give more help and attention to students who struggle, and one of the ways I plan to do this is to pointedly seek methods for engaging them more during class. My first plan of attach on this concerns board meetings.

If you are not familiar, a “board meeting” is loosely defined as having students form a large circle so that they can observe each group’s whiteboards. I typically use this method of whiteboarding to have groups compare data from the same lab in order to induce aspects of a particular model. 

Despite having 25 students in a class, I noticed last year that board meetings tended to be dominated by less than 5 people. I want to try to get all the students involved; I want them all contributing and wrestling with the data. This year I’m going to have board meetings start by giving students 1-2 minutes to simply look around and make at least one observation. I want them to do this silently, individually. I think that sometimes there are students (like me) who are comfortable word-vomiting immediately about what they see, which then overwhelms students who prefer to sit back, take in info, and process before speaking. I want to give that second group time to process. After this time period, I’m going to have them turn to share their observation with the person next to them. Again, I want every single student in the room interacting about the data. After that I think I’ll have them go around the circle to share with the whole group. I thought about letting groups volunteer or cold-calling on groups, but by going around the circle I can step out and simply record their thoughts with minimal guidance and intervention.  As groups report in, I think I’ll stick with my observations/claims approach to help students organize the information reported out. 

I think throughout the year I will slowly remove the scaffolds like turning to partner or going around the circle in favor of more organic approaches, but I’m thinking I’d keep the 1-2 minutes of process time. I really want to help the processors engage before the vomiters get in their way. 

I know this isn’t new in general (yeah, yeah, it’s basically ‘think pair share’), but I think applying the idea specifically to a board meeting has some merit. I’ll report back with how it goes. I’ll also hopefully be posting with other possibilities for getting *all* students engaging in the various aspects of a modeling classroom. 

UPDATE: I did this will all my classes and I believe it was very successful. In addition, we had finished collecting data in one class period but didn’t have time to whiteboard it, so I had them put it in their lab notebooks (sketch a graph, record the equation in words, write the slope and intercept with units and uncertainties), and then to write a couple of sentences summarizing what the results meant. When they came back the next day, I had them take 2 minutes to discuss their paragraphs with each other. I like that this both helped them think about the data first, and then also incorporated some writing, which I hope to do more. After discussing their summaries, I had them gather in a circle and do what I described above. I really believe that this process helped get more students directly involved in wrestling with the data than only doing a standard board meeting. 

I want to thank Patrick Briggs, who keynoted for our all-district kickoff yesterday, for explicitly pointing out  that many students need time to think and prepare before they are willing/able to have an academic conversation.  

Differentiating Professional Development

Today I came across the following tweet by Kate;

I was initially torn. On one hand, I’ve been in the audience for this, and it’s frustrating. On the other, for the last couple of years I’ve been the one in front, and that’s not easy either. I’ve given some lip service to trying to differentiate this type of required professional development but haven’t followed through. Additionally, the team I work with and I have a general goal of wanting to get away from a model where teachers depend on us for technology training and instead focus on improving  pedagogical approaches, so I want to help teachers to be able to learn the specific tech skills they need, when they need it, without a need for sit-n-git PD.

So I posed a question;

There were two ideas that came out of the discussion that I am going to particularly focus on because I think they could work for me.

I like this idea because the list could even be split into ‘need to know,’ intermediate, and advanced sections so that folks who already have the basic competencies can expand their skills with that particular tool, and it could set a baseline for what we expect all teachers to know and be able to do (kinda like we do for students…) with that tool. I like that it very granularly differentiates for teachers. That said, I really like the possible collaborative nature of the second idea;

I like that here teachers could work together to learn whatever competency is expected. I think this is what I would try first, as I’m pretty big into collaborative learning and want to model that with teachers as well.

In either situation, I would like if this were the norm;

As the PD leader, I should be doing two things; provide learning experiences for my participants, and providing opportunities for them to share what they have learned with each other. (Side note: this is no different that what good teaching in a classroom looks like). One reason I particularly like these methods of differentiating PD is that it makes it more difficult for students teachers to get sidetracked, as they can move on to learn things they don’t already know. (I’m the worst student; I try to multitask with twitter, mail, and more twitter, and I end up missing a lot. For that reason as well as this study I have been trying more often to close my laptop and take notes by hand. I’m confident that being allowed to move ahead and explore, with accountability, would keep me more focused.)

Do you have other ideas for differentiating PD? Thoughts about these methods? Let me know in the comments!

What Makes For Good Ed Tech? An ISTE 2014 Reflection

A couple weeks back I attended the ISTE 2014 convention, and I discovered something;

This wasn’t the first time I got worked up about edtech, but this time my frustration is directed towards the amount of money thrown around, particularly on products that don’t consider pedagogy nor the extensive research available on  how students learn. That got me thinking about how we can wade through the dump and find the treasure.

So I wanted to look more at some companies where I really value their emphasis on students and learning to see if I could find some patterns.

Let’s start with Desmos. A quick click to their about page reveals this;

Screen Shot 2014-07-16 at 9.31.31 PM

It’s very clear, and easy to find, that their focus is on constructivist learning. Then if you dig a bit deeper, you’ll find that they’ve partnered with amazing teacher leaders Dan Meyer, Christopher Danielson, and Fawn Nguyen to make some great lessons, designed for learning, powered by Desmos. I also had the fortune to have an extended conversation with Eli Luberoff, CEO of Desmos, and was struck by how much their pedagogical ideals influence what they do. They want to create a place for students to experience math, not a place where math is done to them. It’s inspiring.

Another good example is Dreambox. Their front page boasts

Screen Shot 2014-07-16 at 9.47.56 PM Screen Shot 2014-07-16 at 9.48.09 PM

My daughter uses Dreambox through her school, in a different district than where I teach. I was won over to Dreambox first by the exercises she was completing that place strong emphasis on conceptual development of place value and the meaning of mathematical operations, and then by a great conversation with Tim Hudson, a former math teacher who now designs curriculum for Dreambox. Tim confirmed that pedagogy and conceptual development of mathematics are at the forefront in the design of Dreambox activities.

Aleks

At first glance, Aleks (adaptive learning software) seems to be grounded in research.

Screen Shot 2014-07-16 at 9.53.23 PM

I started digging a bit about Knowledge Space Theory, and found KST is about assessing knowledge, not about how students are able to actually gain that knowledge The difference is important. While it’s good to know what students do and don’t understand, it’s more difficult, in my experience, to actually get them to learn things. Dreambox focuses on getting students to understand concepts through conceptual development, while Aleks focuses on, from what I have seen, drill and kill practice based on what the platform decided a student doesn’t know.

Khan Academy 

Screen Shot 2014-07-16 at 9.55.11 PM

I admire that Sal Khan wants to change “education for the better by providing a free world-class education for anyone anywhere”. It’s an admirable goal, and one worth pursuing.

The problem is that KA repeatedly refuses to consider research on pedagogy and student learning (see Frank Noschese’s and Christopher Danielson’s posts for starters). The about page boasts about data and badges (read Bill Ferriter’s post about the problem with badges) rather than about deep thinking and conceptual development. I won’t rehash Frank and Christopher’s arguments, but seriously, go read those posts. It’s amazing what we do actually know about learning, and that Mr. Khan is dismissive of it all.

After my Twitter rant at ISTE about edtech nonsense, Kelly made an interesting observation;

Edtech as an industry seems bent largely on ‘personalization’ and ‘individualization'; there is, however, a significant research base on student learning through collaboration and dialogue. Edtech should aid in promoting methods that work, rather than move away from them. Some are. I’m hoping this post helps myself and others make some strides as to how to find those edtech companies that really do have students, rather than dollars, at their core.

As for the edtech startups,  I can only hope they heed Frank’s edtech PR tips.

Finally, the most reliable method I have found in vetting edtech is to pay attention to what the right people are saying. Everybody in the MTBoS raves about Desmos. When I originally posted to Twitter asking about Dreambox I got rave reviews from folks I highly respect. KA, on the other hand, is not spoken highly of in those circles, and I don’t ever hear mention of Aleks. Chances are good, it seems,  that if a number of twitter folks are raving about a product for it’s usefulness in student learning, it’ll be a good one. Find people who explicitly evaluate learning effectiveness, and listen to them.